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We are a worldwide social network of freethinkers, atheists, agnostics and secular humanists.

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World History

A group about World History so that I do not end up spamming my USA and Non USA News Group

Location: #culture
Members: 18
Latest Activity: 12 hours ago

Discussion Forum

How the British Divided Up the Arab World

Started by Hope. Last reply by Chris Oct 15, 2016. 7 Replies

How the British Divided Up the Arab WorldThe development of the modern nation states throughout the Arab world is a fascinating and heartbreaking process. 100 years ago, most Arabs were part of the…Continue

Tags: Arab, World, Up, Divided, the

History Snippets

Started by Anti_Doone. Last reply by Tom Sarbeck Oct 12, 2016. 3 Replies

AN AMERICAN CREATION STORYby Akim ReinhardtThere is scientific evidence indicating that Asiatic peoples migrated…Continue

Tags: Snippets, History

Old Time Religion and Buildings

Started by Anti_Doone. Last reply by Onyango Makagutu Nov 30, 2012. 1 Reply

Tatev Monastery - Tatev, ArmeniaThe Tatev monastery once played a notable role in the advancement of medieval Armenian culture when it housed the University of Tatev in the 14th and 15th…Continue

Tags: Buildings, and, Religion, Time, Old

THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE AND THE RISE OF ISLAM

Started by Anti_Doone. Last reply by Anti_Doone Jul 11, 2012. 2 Replies

THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE AND THE RISE OF ISLAMTom Holland in The Guardian:Whenever modern civilisations…Continue

Tags: AND, RISE, ISLAM, EMPIRE, ROMAN

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Comment by Anti_Doone on March 5, 2012 at 9:16am

EUROPE INVENTS THE GYPSIES: THE DARK SIDE OF MODERNITY

Bogdal_468wKlaus-Michael Bogdal in Eurozine:

Is Europe anything more than the remnants of a grand political delusion? Is there a cultural bond that unites the nations and peoples of this fragmented continent? From Max Weber to Norbert Elias, the greats of European intellectual history have described and re-described Europe as the birthplace of modernity; not, like the other continents, as the "heart of darkness", but as the energetic centre of civilizing progress. Their attention has focused on the "grand narratives": industrialization and economic productivity, state and nation building, science and art. Yet might not an examination from the other side – through an investigation of the marginal – provide essential insights into Europe's development over the longue dureé? Might not the history of the Roma, a group marginalized like none other, reveal a less auspicious aspect of Europe's grand narrative of modernity?

The tendency of existing research to treat the Roma as having first entered European political history with the Nazi genocide disregards a unique six-hundred-year history. It is indeed the case that the Roma, who over long periods of time lived nomadically and possessed no written culture of their own, have left almost no historical accounts of themselves. The heritage and documents therefore do not permit a history of the Roma comparable to that, for example, of the persecuted and expelled French Huguenots. What is available to us, however, is evidence – in the form of literature and art – of the way in which the settled, feudally organized European population experienced a way of life that it perceived as threatening. Despite consisting solely of stories and images that are defensive "distortions", this evidence provides a far from unfavourable basis for an examination of the six-hundred-year history of the European Roma, insofar as it is a history of cultural appropriation characterized by segregation. We encounter the traces of the reality experienced by the Roma almost exclusively through depictions by outsiders, and must use these to imagine those parts considered impossible to represent. The extraneous cultural depictions of the Roma – variously referred to as gypsies, zigeuner, tatern, cigány, çingeneler, and so on – have created heterogeneous units of "erased" identity and cultural attributes. The "invention" of the Gypsy is the underside of the European cultural subject's invention of itself as the agent of civilising progress in the world.

The Roma occupied a unique position from the outset. They belonged to those who were not there from the beginning, who were not expected and who therefore had to disappear again. They were seen as sinister because they "lurked everywhere" and "came and went" according to inscrutable rules. This gave rise to a uniform moment of perception and encounter: the ambivalence of contempt and fascination. A repository of stereotypes, images, motifs, behavioural patterns and legends developed early on, at the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern period. Repeatedly, exterminatory fantasies turned into exterminatory practices.

Posted by Robin Varghese at 06:57 PM | Permalink 

Comment by Anti_Doone on March 2, 2012 at 9:30am

#8  

Comment by Marianne on March 1, 2012 at 11:10pm

Well,Doone, you certainly surprised me with all these words' etymology (I like the one "cell").

Comment by Anti_Doone on March 1, 2012 at 7:41am


7 Surprising Word Origins

You use these words on a regular basis, but their etymology may surprise you.



1. Addict

Addict

Under ancient Roman law, addiction referred to the legal surrendering of an individual as a slave to a master. Ultimately, the term addict became associated with habitual behavior that made a person a slave to something else; this included the craving of substances such as drugs or alcohol.

Source: gutenberg.org

2. Carat

Carat

Carat, the standard unit of weight for precious stones, derives from the Greek word for carob seeds, "keraton." Apparently, fully grown carob seeds have a consistent weight from seed to seed (approximately 200mg), which made them a handy item to determine the weight of small objects, such as diamonds, on a balance scale.

3. Cell

Cell

After examining plant matter under a microscope, early modern scientist Robert Hooke coined the word cell to refer to the smallest unit of life because plants' cellular structure resembled monks' cells (living quarters) in a monastery.

4. Ketchup

Ketchup

Although we commonly think of ketchup as a tomato product, historically the term derives from a Chinese fish sauce called ke-tsiap. English travelers likely brought the recipe back from Malaysia. By the mid-eighteenth century, "ketchup" or "catsup" was a common staple in Britain and its American colonies. Tomatoes weren't part of the recipe until the 1790s, partly due to a common English/American belief that tomatoes were unsuitable for human consumption.

5. Robot

Robot

Robot derives from the Czech word "robotnik," a term for peasant workers that in turn derived from older words meaning "forced labor" and "slavery." 1923 English translations of Karl Capek's science fiction thriller, R. U. R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), popularized the term. In R. U. R., machines take over the world and implant circuits into humans, transforming them into mindless "robot" slaves. Prior to "robot," people tended to use the word "automaton" to describe quasi-autonomous machines.

6. Sabotage

Sabotage

One proposed origin for the term sabotage concerns the behavior of French Luddites during the Industrial Revolution. Fearful that the new technology would make artisans obsolete, workers supposedly threw their wooden clogs, sabots, at power looms hoping to jam the machinery -- hence, "sabotage." Etymologists and historians alternatively have suggested that the term sabotage derives from the noise made by the clattering of sabots, which made walking stealthily difficult. Sabotage came to refer to disrupting noises, then more generally, a deliberate attempt to ruin something.

Source: roymail

7. Spooning

Spooning

Used primarily in a romantic sense these days, spooning is an arrangement of people that visually resembles nested spoons. Eighteenth-century slave traders used the term to describe a specific slave packing arrangement when boarding African slaves on ships to cross the Middle Passage.

Comment by Marianne on February 8, 2012 at 1:59pm

I really really like Spark's map and must go on the site to see if I can read better...

Comment by Michel on February 8, 2012 at 11:59am

@Jaume - Yeah extrapolators... A friend once noted that in the late 1800's extrapolators were fearing mounds of horse manure and resulting catastrophic pollution in big cities when populations would reach astronomical numbers in the mid 1900's. They were right about the population.

Comment by Jaume on February 8, 2012 at 11:39am

Yep. I like Bruno's weird "map", but the other are interesting as well. What's funny in Sparks's is the extrapolation to the 1950's - Canada as influential or powerful as the USSR, or Germany dwarfed by France ;-)

Comment by Michel on February 8, 2012 at 11:32am
Comment by Anti_Doone on February 8, 2012 at 10:36am

Cartographies of Time


photoJohn Sparks, The Histomap, New York, 1931.

Text by Rosecrans Baldwin

Comment by Anti_Doone on February 6, 2012 at 6:20am

THE SEARCH FOR A TWO-THOUSAND-YEAR-OLD CITY

by Hartosh Singh Bal

Lost to history, a number of cities of classical antiquity once existed along the banks of the river Narmada in central India. Many of these cities date back to the 3rd century BC, to the time of the emperor Ashoka, who united the subcontinent into an empire whose extent was never again to be matched in the history of India. The emperor ruled from Patliputra (modern day Patna) in the heart of Magadh in the Indo-Gangetic plain but the spread of his empire made it inevitable that there would be other centers of administration. It was carved into four provinces, after Magadh the most important of these was Avanti with its capital Ujjain. Along the highway connecting the two capitals a number of cities came up and prospered, including some on the banks of the Narmada.

A coup by a Brahmin commander-in-chief who in all likelihood could not tolerate the ascendance of Buddhism brought down the Mauryan Empire. In the aftermath Patliputra could no longer exercise control over the unwieldy empire, the cities soon went their own way. One of the most important of these was Mahismati. Despite several references that crop up in classical Sanskrit literature, today it is difficult to pin down its exact location. This has given rise to a host of claimants along the Narmada, residents of modern day towns such as Mandla and Maheshwar still wage a fevered battle  - leaving nothing aside, myths, fanciful notions, borrowings from questionable sources, notions that historians of repute would never touch.

ScreenHunter_12 Feb. 06 10.47There remains one authentic source for delving into the history of these cities. Coins dating back as far as the third century BC have been recovered in such abundance from the Narmada valley that the subject now forms a separate field of study. Borrowing symbols used on coins once struck at the Ujjain mint, we can guess at the existence of cities such as Bhagila, Kurara and Madavika only through the markings on their coins.

The coins do not differ much in size from the modern coin, though square shapes seemed to have been preferred. They are often crowded with symbols. A single square coin, no larger than the modern 25paisa coin, could accommodate as many as five symbols on each face.  Some of these symbols were in use across the subcontinent, such as the swastika; others such as the Ujjain symbol resembling the iron cross demarcated a region.

Continue reading "The search for a two-thousand-year-old city"

Posted by Hartosh Singh Bal at 12:05 AM | Permalink 

 

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