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Are Scientists or Pseudoscientists Claiming They Found a Black Hole?

A. The scientific method requires confirmation by others. Who will confirm this claim?

B. Scientists tell their peers of achievements in journals and at conferences. Give some thought to reasons why these people are using popular media.

 

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that guy asking you: what is the evidence for gravity wells? That is so funny. means he knows SFA. truly woeful. him not you

First ever image of SUPER-MASSIVE black hole –how big is it?

Stephen, you know the religious method well; without evidence you believe what you are told.

The scientific method requires confirmation by others.

What it took to capture a black hole

Advances in computational imaging and general relativistic modeling helped make sense of petabytes of telescope data.

Last June, members of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) team convened in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to see if they could combine the data from eight telescopes into a single, clear image.

The researchers had their work cut out for them. Over the course of four days in April 2017, the EHT telescopes had stared at the supermassive black hole of Messier 87, an elliptical galaxy 55 million light-years away in the Virgo cluster. Three orders of magnitude as massive as the one at the center of our galaxy but also three orders as distant, M87’s central black hole (M87*) has an apparent diameter of 40 microarcseconds, roughly the size of the date on a quarter in Los Angeles as seen from Washington, DC. The telescopes—some single dishes, others multi-instrument arrays, and all susceptible to systematic noise—had viewed the tiny target from slightly different angles and had encountered varying degrees of atmospheric turbulence when collecting the 1.3-mm-wavelength photons. The technique of linking distant radio telescopes to form a virtual telescope the size of the distance between them, known as very long baseline interferometry, wasn’t new. But no one had ever tried to crunch the data from so many telescopes at such short wavelengths to view something just 40 μas across.

Last June, members of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) team convened in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to see if they could combine the data from eight telescopes into a single, clear image.

The researchers had their work cut out for them. Over the course of four days in April 2017, the EHT telescopes had stared at the supermassive black hole of Messier 87, an elliptical galaxy 55 million light-years away in the Virgo cluster. Three orders of magnitude as massive as the one at the center of our galaxy but also three orders as distant, M87’s central black hole (M87*) has an apparent diameter of 40 microarcseconds, roughly the size of the date on a quarter in Los Angeles as seen from Washington, DC. The telescopes—some single dishes, others multi-instrument arrays, and all susceptible to systematic noise—had viewed the tiny target from slightly different angles and had encountered varying degrees of atmospheric turbulence when collecting the 1.3-mm-wavelength photons. The technique of linking distant radio telescopes to form a virtual telescope the size of the distance between them, known as very long baseline interferometry, wasn’t new. But no one had ever tried to crunch the data from so many telescopes at such short wavelengths to view something just 40 μas across.

As we now know, the EHT team succeeded in “seeing the unseeable,” as project leader Sheperd Doeleman of MIT put it during a 10 April press conference in Washington. Just as he and his colleagues had hoped, the team was able to resolve superheated plasma streaking just outside the photon orbit radius, the distance from the center of a black hole at which any inward-moving photon no longer has a chance to escape (as opposed to the event horizon, where nothing, regardless of its motion, can escape). The details of how the image came to be, particularly the computational processing and the simulations that validated the derived image, appear in a series of papers published in Astrophysical Journal Letters.

The first step in imaging the black hole was to develop an enormous virtual radio telescope (see Physics Today, November 2008, page 14). Doeleman and his team achieved that feat by coordinating observations made at eight stations at six locations in Arizona, Hawaii, Mexico, Chile, Spain, and Antarctica. In multiple 3- to 7-minute scans on 5, 6, 10, and 11 April 2017, the telescopes observed M87*, along with other objects for calibration purposes. In the subsequent months, hard drives with the data, all of them stamped with times derived from the atomic clocks installed at each telescope station, were shipped to MIT and the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany. There the datasets were combined, calibrated, checked, and then recalibrated numerous times.

Once the data were calibrated, the researchers had to turn them into one static image. With no blueprint of a previous comparable project to guide its progress, the collaboration decided to divide the 50 or so scientists dedicated to imaging into four groups, each of which would crunch the M87* data in a different way. Two relied on a nearly half-century-old, tried-and-true computational imaging method called CLEAN; the other two used a more recently developed technique, regularized maximum likelihood (RML). Over the past few years, Katie Bouman (now at MIT, soon to join Caltech), Andrew Chael (Harvard), and colleagues have honed RML for the black-hole project by computationally cancelling out effects of the atmosphere and incrementally piecing together complete images. The work in each group was kept confidential. After seven weeks of analysis, each group submitted its end result to a web portal.

The imaging efforts came to a head at the weeklong June 2018 meeting in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Over the first few days, the four groups met separately but then began to share details about the intricacies of their analyses. Finally, on 25 June, the entire EHT imaging team viewed all four images. They weren’t identical, but they all shared a fundamental feature: a roughly 40 μas photon ring surrounding an orb of darkness, the long-sought silhouette of a black hole. “It was a remarkable moment,” says imaging team coleader Kazunori Akiyama of MIT.

See the first link. Or This

What it took to capture a black hole

Within thie article in the link it meantions doppler effect.

...The image of M87* presented this week is essentially a composite of the four group images, updated with higher-quality data. “Everyone can say, ‘It’s my image,'” says Ramesh Narayan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge. The final image contains plenty of catnip for black hole devotees: For example, the brighter southern region is the result of the Doppler effect; the plasma there is moving toward us. And deep within the dark central circle, with a radius no larger than 40% that of the visible photon ring, lies the event horizon, the true boundary of no return....

Doppler effect may explain what Joey was saying about the red shift (and gravity hole) that Hubble saw from which Georges Lematre concluded the Big Bang Theory.

Light wavelenghts can be streached  and bent as seen  in the measurment explained in the

How A Solar Eclipse First Proved Einstein Right

link.

Array of simulationsA sampling of the many simulations of M87* performed by the Event Horizon Telescope team. Credit: Event Horizon Telescope collaboration

Stephen and Chris, both of you went way off topic.

A. The scientific method requires confirmation by others. Who will confirm this claim?

B. Scientists tell their peers of achievements in journals and at conferences. Give some thought to reasons why these people are using popular media.

I thought I answered that with a previous post

"

The astrilogical measurements that were done as informed in the following link is a clue for gravity wells.

How A Solar Eclipse First Proved Einstein Right

Information such as the super massive black hole image should be distributed to the general public.  

Perhaps the main problem is it's distributed in the same tone withing the same media conglomerates that tout Kardashians breast, or buttock enlargment surgery.

I also said that media should be used for education rather than entertainment and advertizement.

Peer reviewed journals albet available - especially those funded by government grants should be accessable to the public for the cost of reproducing.  That's wahat Aaron Swartz was about.

As it is now to access many peer reviewed articled funded by the government and produced by Universities require an additional publishers  fee of from $20-$80 to read.

Universities used to self publish papers.

Congress sucking  Eliphant lobyist (cocks)   for donations now don't allow universities to self publish so the average reader can read original papers without paying more than the reproduction and shipping cost - which is nothing over the internet.

Chris, you’ll have to do better than link to Ethan Siegal’s blog. HE IS ONE OF THE PREACHERS IN THE BIG BANG RELIGION.

Like the preachers in other religions he has tens of thousands of words but not a shred  of evidence.

If you want to stay on topic, deal with one or both of the following questions.

1) Who will confirm the claim of a black hole?

2) For what reason or reasons are the claimants using popular media?

To lighten it up,

I heard that some are bleaching the holes.

It would be great if there were some academic 'shows' on TV - however that isn't the case.

It's all about selling makup and pharmicuticals isn't is?

I heard they are painting the holes but the paint keeps getting sucked into the holes.

Stephen, are scientists or pseudoscientists making that claim?

To find out, go to http://www.thunderbolts.info without delay and on its home page you can click on a short video titled Wal Thornhill: Black Hole or Plasmoid?

If you delay you can use the strange little search box on the upper right and search on plasmoid or plasmoids.

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